Perry CL, Kelder SH, Murray DM, Klepp KI. (1992). Communitywide smoking prevention: long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 Study. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1210-1216.
Model Smoking Prevention Program (MSPP)
|Program Title||Model Smoking Prevention Program (MSPP)|
|Purpose||Designed to prevent tobacco use among students in grades 4-12. (1992)|
|Program Focus||Awareness building and Tobacco Use Prevention|
|Population Focus||School Children|
|Age||Adolescents (11-18 years)|
|Race/Ethnicity||White, not of Hispanic or Latino origin|
|Setting||Community, Home-based, School-based|
|Funded by||NHLBI (Grant number(s): HL 25523)|
|User Reviews||(Be the first to write a review for this program)|
Despite the decline in cigarette smoking rates over the past 25 years, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 20% of high school students report that they smoke. This is of great concern since cigarette smoking is thought to be the primary cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. The peak time of smoking onset occurs in the 6th to 9th grades, so it is important to educate students regarding the health consequences of cigarette smoking before this critical period.
Previous smoking prevention programs targeting adolescents have been school-based. While they have been found to be effective in delaying the onset of cigarette smoking, none has demonstrated positive outcomes after 3 years. It was hypothesized that the effects of a school-based smoking prevention program with young adolescents would more likely be maintained if the program was part of a larger behavioral health program implemented throughout communities where adults within the family, schools, and community were all involved in the intervention efforts.
Below are the following time requirements to administer the MSPP:
-- For teachers to read and prepare for each lesson (about 45 minutes/lesson) by reading the teacher's manual
-- For teachers to hold elections and train peer leaders to co-teach each lesson (15 minutes for election and tally; 10-15 minutes/lesson for each of two peer leader training sessions)
-- For teachers and students to participate in the classroom program (45-50 minutes/lesson)
-- For parents to read the Talking About Tobacco booklet (15 minutes) and to talk with their child about the content of the booklet (15 minutes)
-- For a community coordinator to organize community task forces to initiate community-level changes; time varies by intensity of efforts and whether this is a paid or unpaid position (this component is optional)
The MSPP toolkit includes the following materials:
-- Peer leadership guide
-- Booster session materials for high school students
-- Reproducible student handouts, IDs, and certificates
-- Parent booklets
-- Facilitator's guide with a set of game posters
-- Community action guide (optional)
The entire population of three cities in the north-central United States participated in the MHHP (the original cardiovascular disease prevention program). Three similar cities, also in the north-central portion of the United States, served as control communities. Participants in the Class of 1989 Study who received MSPP were 7th-grade students from two of the MHHP communities (two received the MHHP program, and one additional community served as a no-intervention reference community). The average age of participants was 12, and there were equal numbers of males and females. They were primarily White and represented a variety of socioeconomic levels. Students in the intervention community received the intervention, while students in the reference community served as controls. No school- or community-based smoking prevention programs were implemented in the reference community during the study period. Baseline surveys were conducted in the first year. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline.
The MSPP was implemented in the fall of 1984, when the cohort of participants was in the 7th grade (Class of 1989 Study). Outcome evaluations were assessed through annual surveys from 1983 to 1989, conducted in the classrooms by survey staff from the MHHP who were trained for classroom administration. All students in the Class of 1989 Study were surveyed, for a total of approximately 2,000 students annually. Participation rates of 93-94% were achieved in each of the survey years.
- At final follow-up in 1989, the mean smoking prevalence over the past month was 14.6% for the intervention group versus 24.1% for the control group (p<.01).
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