The Implementation Guide is a resource for implementing this program. It provides important information about the staffing and functions necessary for administering this program in the user's setting. Additionally, the steps needed to carry out the research-tested program, relevant program materials, and information for evaluating the program are included. The Implementation Guide can be viewed and downloaded in the Products page.
A Self-Help Intervention for African American Smokers
|Program Title||A Self-Help Intervention for African American Smokers|
|Purpose||Designed to promote cessation among African American smokers. (1998)|
|Program Focus||Smoking Cessation|
|Population Focus||Current Smokers|
|Age||Adults (40-65 years), Older Adults (65+ years), Young Adults (19-39 years)|
|Race/Ethnicity||Black, not of Hispanic or Latino origin|
|Funded by||NCI (Grant number(s): P01CA57586)|
|User Reviews||(Be the first to write a review for this program)|
To administer the Self-Help Intervention for African American Smokers, time is required for:
-Smokers/quitters to read, refer to, and complete the brief exercises in the 36-page quitting guide (e.g., 1-2 hours over a period of 2-6 weeks)
-Counselors to administer tailored quitline counseling (10-45 minutes with a median of 30 minutes)
-Training counselors on the core counseling protocols including rehearsals, refresher sessions, and follow-up sessions (10-12 hours)
The Self-Help Intervention for African American Smokers toolkit includes the following materials:
-"Pathways to Freedom" participant manual
-Quitting Barriers manual
-Tailored counseling checklist
Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions based on the last digit in the primary telephone number given for follow-up interviews. The intervention group received a, CIS quit-smoking intervention that combined tailored, culturally-appropriate materials, and counseling addressing population-based and personal quit-smoking motives and barriers. The control group received the standard CIS quit-smoking intervention, which is a standard, stage-based counseling protocol, along with the National Cancer Institute's generic quit-smoking guide "Clearing the Air". The latter is a 24-page guide written at the eighth-grade reading level that depicts smokers and quitters from diverse racial/ethnic groups.
The participants in this study were 1,422 African American adult smokers who called one of four regional offices of the CIS (located in Durham, NC; Philadelphia, PA; Houston, TX; and Birmingham, AL) for free quit-smoking information and materials. To be eligible, participants had to be African American, current smoker/recent quitter (past 30 days), age 20 or older, with no previous use of the "Pathways to Freedom" tailored smoking cessation guide; they also had to consent to a 6-month, follow-up telephone interview. Most of the callers (>85%) contacted CIS in response to the population-targeted and culturally-tailored Quit Today! radio and television advertising campaign that ran within the service areas of these four CIS offices during a 23-month period. Only 3.5% of potentially eligible callers declined to give follow-up consent.
Follow-up assessments were conducted 6 months post-baseline by telephone interview. Interviews were administered using a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) format. Six-month follow-up interviews were completed with 63% of respondents, but follow-up rates did not differ by condition (63.4% standard intervention, 62.2% tailored intervention). An abbreviated 12-month follow-up interview was conducted with 445 participants accrued in the study during Year 2. Twelve-month interviews were conducted using an abbreviated version of the 6-month CATI interview format. Of the 445 eligible participants, 59% completed the 12-month follow-up interview. Those who completed the 12-month interview were significantly more likely to be older and to not smoke within 30 minutes of awakening. There were no significant group differences in any of the baseline socio-demographic or smoking and quitting history variables within the overall sample.
- At the 6-month follow-up, participants in the Self-Help for African American Smokers tailored intervention group reported a median of two quit attempts in the past 6 months versus a median of one in the standard intervention group (p<.01). There were no significant differences in any of the baseline socio-demographic or smoking and quitting history variables.
- At 12-month follow-up, self-reported 7-day abstinence was 15% for the Self-Help for African American Smokers tailored intervention group versus 8.8% for the standard intervention group (p<.05).
Setting a quit date
- At the 6-month follow-up, 68.9% of participants in the tailored intervention group reported setting a quit date versus 45.5% of those in the standard intervention group (p<.001).
Orleans CT, Boyd NR, Bingler R, et al. (1998). A self-help intervention for African American smokers: tailoring cancer information service counseling for a special population. Preventive Medicine, 27 , S61-S70.
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