Appearance-focused Skin Cancer Prevention Intervention
|Purpose||Designed to reduce indoor tanning through the awareness of the harmful effects of exposure to UV radiation. (2008)|
|Program Focus||Awareness building and Behavior Modification|
|Population Focus||Indoor tanning individuals|
|Age||Young Adults (19-39 years)|
|Race/Ethnicity||Alaskan Native, American Indian, Asian, Black, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, Hispanic or Latino, Pacific Islander, White, not of Hispanic or Latino origin|
|Setting||Clinical, Community, Home-based, Rural, School-based, Suburban, Urban/Inner City|
|Funded by||American Cancer Society (Grant number(s): RSGPB-05-011-01)|
The required resources for this study include:
-Beauty tips for life: Keep the skin you were born in! booklet
-Personnel to order and distribute the booklets and conduct face-to-face follow-up discussions, if desired.
About the Study
A computer generated a random list of 1,690 female university students from 2 universities. The students were sent an invitation email with a screening survey assessing past indoor tanning behavior and future intentions. Email receipt was confirmed for 853 individuals. Inclusion criteria were past-year indoor tanning or a score of 5 or above on a 7-point scale that measured intentions to tan in the next year. Eligibility requirements were met in 454 of the 853 (53.0%) individuals, and 430 agreed to complete and did complete baseline measures. Participants ranged in age from 17 to 21, with a median age of 18.6 (SD=0.78). Participants were randomized into intervention (n=200) or no intervention control conditions (n=230). The final groups consisted of 195 intervention participants and 217 controls. Participants completed the baseline assessment in the fall. Intervention participants were then given the intervention and asked to provide feedback 1 month later, which provided an evaluation of whether the materials were attended to and comprehended. All participants were reassessed at 1-month follow-up for mediational analyses. All long-term follow-up assessments took place in April, 6 months after the booklets were distributed to intervention participants, which allowed for assessment of indoor tanning during the period of heaviest use.
At both baseline and 6-month follow-up, participants completed an online survey indicating how often they had participated in indoor tanning in the previous 3 months (August through October at baseline; February through April at follow-up). The baseline assessment covered a period with some of the lowest expected indoor tanning use, while the follow-up assessment covered a period with the highest rates of use. Participants were also asked about their intentions to tan indoors in the future.
At baseline and 1-month follow-up, participants were asked to indicate their level of agreement with several statements regarding attitudes toward indoor tanning (e.g., "All things considered, I believe that indoor UV tanning is a good thing for me"); attitudes toward sunless tanning (e.g., "Sunless tanning lotions are a good way to look more attractive"); and attitudes toward fashion (e.g., "I feel that wearing nice clothes makes me more attractive"). Participants were asked to complete three items indicating the degree to which they believed tanning improves attractiveness (e.g., "I look more attractive when I have a nice tan") and three items indicating the degree to which they perceive indoor tanning as a good way to relax and relieve stress (e.g., "I love the warm feeling of indoor UV tanning"). Finally, participants were asked whether friends and typical and popular college students think they should (or should not) tan indoors, rated on a 7-point scale from "strongly think I should" to "strongly think I should not", and how motivated they were to comply with the referent's indoor tanning opinions, rated on a 7-point scale from "completely motivated" to "not at all motivated." Participants were also asked to rate their level of agreement on a 5-point scale regarding tanning norms for models and actresses.
- From baseline to follow-up, the increase in past 3-month indoor tanning sessions was significantly lower for participants assigned to the intervention group compared with participants assigned to the control group (p<.001).
- From baseline to follow-up, participants assigned to the intervention group decreased their intention to tan indoors in the future, while participants assigned to the control group increased their intention to tan indoors in the future (p<.001).
- The intervention was associated with significant reductions in favorable attitudes toward indoor tanning (p<.001) and accompanying improvements in attitudes toward using sunless tanning (p<.05) and fashion (p<.05) to enhance appearance in participants assigned to the intervention group, compared to those assigned to the control group.
- The intervention was associated with decreases in the perception that tans are attractive (p<.05), the perception that indoor tanning is relaxing and stress relieving (p<.01), the belief that models and actresses tan indoors (p<.001), and that their peers think they should tan indoors (p<.001).
Hillhouse, J., Turrisi, R., Stapleton, J., & Robinson, J. (2010). Effect of seasonal affective disorder and pathological tanning motives on efficacy of an appearance-focused intervention to prevent skin cancer. Archives of Dermatology, 146 (5), 485-491.
Stapleton, J., Turrisi, R., Hillhouse, J., Robinson, J. K., & Abar, B. (2010). A comparison of the efficacy of an appearance-focused skin cancer intervention within indoor tanner subgroups identified by latent profile analysis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33 (3), 181-190.