Woman to Woman

Highlights
Program Title Woman to Woman
Purpose Designed to increase breast cancer and cervical cancer screening in the worksite setting. (2001)
Program Focus Awareness building and Behavior Modification
Population Focus Un- and/or Underscreened Individuals
Topic Breast Cancer Screening, Cervical Cancer Screening
Age Adults (40-65 years)
Gender Female
Race/Ethnicity Hispanic or Latino, White, not of Hispanic or Latino origin
Setting Workplace
Origination United States
Funded by NCI (Grant number(s): CA66038)
RTIPs Scores
This program has been rated by external peer reviewers. Learn more about RTIPs program review ratings.
Research Integrity
4.1
Intervention Impact
2.0
Dissemination Capability
4.0
(1.0 = low    5.0 = high)
RE-AIM Scores
Beginning in 2012, new programs are scored on RE-AIM criteria. This program was posted prior to the inclusion of RE-AIM scores and does not have these scores included. Click on the information icon next to "RE-AIM Scores" above to learn more about RE-AIM.

The Need

It is estimated that in 1998 in the United States, 4,900 women died from cervical cancer. Regular Pap screening may reduce cervical cancer mortality by as much as 98 percent. Pap tests are recommended every 1 to 3 years for women who are 18 years and older or who are sexually active. As of 1998, an estimated 69 percent of women 18 years and older had had a Pap test in the last year. Although the percentage of women receiving Pap tests had been increasing since 1987, a substantial number are not regularly receiving the tests. Low-income, less educated women are less likely than others to undergo regular screening. Worksite interventions may be an effective approach for reaching large numbers of women at regular intervals to encourage participation in screening.
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The Program

Description

Woman to Woman is a 16-month intervention aimed at improving adherence to screening guidelines for breast and cervical cancer among women aged 40 and older.

Volunteer advisory boards recruit and select peer health advisors (PHAs), tailor the intervention according to the needs and interests of the worksite, as well as assist in the planning and promotion of intervention activities. PHAs disseminate breast and cervical cancer information to coworkers, provide social support, and foster positive social norms for screening.

Over the course of the intervention, PHAs conduct an average of six small-group discussions on breast and cervical cancer screening. In addition, PHAs also conduct individual outreach to those who do not attend sessions while PHAs and the volunteer advisory boards implement two worksite-wide events over the intervention period.

Implementation Guide

The Implementation Guide is a resource for implementing this program. It provides important information about the staffing and functions necessary for administering this program in the user's setting. Additionally, the steps needed to carry out the research-tested program, relevant program materials, and information for evaluating the program are included. The Implementation Guide can be viewed and downloaded in the Products page.

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Community Preventive Services Task Force Finding

Guide to Community Preventive Services This program is an example of group education interventions (Breast Cancer Screening), which is recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force, as found in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. It is also an example of group education interventions (Cervical Cancer Screening) which has an insufficient evidence finding from the Community Preventive Services Task Force, as found in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Insufficient evidence means the available studies do not provide sufficient evidence to determine if the intervention is or is not effective. This does not mean that the intervention does not work. It means that additional research is needed to determine whether the intervention is effective. To expand understanding of this intervention category consider communicating with members from NCI's Research to Reality (R2R) community of practice who may be able to help you with your research efforts. Following is a link to start an online discussion with the R2R community of practice, after completing registration on the R2R site: https://researchtoreality.cancer.gov/discussions.
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Time Required

The intervention takes 16 months.

The program requires a volunteer advisory board to coordinate promotional activities and maintain a resource center. The board meets monthly for 1-2 hours. A worksite coordinator spends 45 minutes per week on project activities, including conducting advisory board meetings, publicizing project activities, and maintaining the resource center. One PHA is needed for about every 150 female employees.

PHAs need to be recruited, in which they receive 16 hours of training before program implementation. The topic areas include the following: cancer epidemiology, early detection methods, screening guidelines, community resources. PHAs also receive training on small group education, individual counseling, and program planning.

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Intended Audience

The program targets women over 40 years old employed in the service industry.
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Suitable Settings

Woman to Woman is designed to be implemented in the workplace. It may also be suitable for implementation in churches or housing developments.
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Required Resources

The program requires the use of the following items: 1) Woman to Woman Program Manual: A Complete Guide to Implementing the Woman to Woman Program in Your Workplace, 2) Lunch and Learn Session Kits, and 3) Woman to Woman Facilitator Manual.  Other resources such as posters, buttons, and incentives may be required for activities and campaigns.
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About the Study

A randomized controlled trial of 26 worksites with 2,747 participants aged 40 and older compared worksites that implemented Woman to Woman with those receiving no intervention over the course of 16 weeks.

Key Findings

  • Employees at Woman to Woman worksites were more likely to get Pap tests than those at comparison worksites (odds ratio=1.28).


Pre-Posttest Changes in Pap Test Screening 

      Graph of Study Results
  

  • The intervention did not appear to affect the likelihood of obtaining a clinical breast exam or a mammogram.
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Last Modified: 04/02/2013
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Maintenance

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